Main informations
Location map
Name of Organization
IncoMaputo Watercourse Commission
Administrative Address
Head of Organization
Year Launched
Total Area
Length of River
Total Population
3 257 000million inhabitants
Total Rainfall
Irrigated Agriculture
Rain-Fed Agriculture
Geographical scope

The Incomati watercourse is the system of the Incomati River, which includes the tributaries Mazimechopes, Uanetze, Massintonto, Sabie, Crocodile, Komati Rivers, and the estuary and the Maputo watercourse is the system of the Maputo River, which includes the tributaries Pongola and Usuthu Rivers, and the estuary.

Riparian Countries
Countries Area
Central African

The TPTC is an advisory committee without executive powers. It advises the contracting parties on technical, legal, administrative, and other reasonable measures related to the development and management of the Incomati and Maputo watercourse systems and it is to remain in force until superseded by another comprehensive water agreement.

Organizational Structure

The Tripartite Permanent Technical Committee is the only organ established by the Interin IncoMaputo Agreement as an advisory committee without executive power

Organizational Structure for Cooperation

The Tripartite Permanent Technical Committee (TPTC), which was established in 1983, is the joint body for cooperation covering the Incomati and Maputo Rivers.
The Interim IncoMaputo Agreement reestablished the TPTC as an advisory committee without executive power. The joint body is supposed to meet at least twice
a year with the purpose of implementing the Interim IncoMaputo Agreement. The Chairman-ship and the venue of meetings rotates among the signatory states.

Management Plans and Action Programs

In the Interim IncoMaputo Agreement, the three governments agreed on a list of “Reference Projects” to be implemented.
Based on determining criteria, Reference Projects are mentioned for Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland.

Monitoring and Information Systems

The parties were required to exchange available information and data regarding the hydrological, geo-hydrological, water quality, meteorological, and environmental
conditions of the watercourses in order to enable planning, development, and management of the shared watercourses.
Any planned water resource development and water utilization projects would only commence if the provisions of the Revised SADC Protocol on the procedures of
notifying other Riparian Countries of planned measures had been complied with.
Prior to signing the Interim IncoMaputo Agreement, the TPTC had already adopted the “Resolution on the Exchange of Information and Water Quality.” However measures were also instituted to establish regular comparable monitoring systems, methods and procedures; and to report on the status and trends of the associated aquatic, marine, and riparian ecosystems.

Rules on Decision-Making and Procedure for Dispute Resolution

The TPTC shall adopt – by consensus – its rules of procedure that will govern the meetings. The Interim IncoMaputo Agreement further stipulates that any dispute shall be settled amicably through consultation and negotiations among the parties. In cases in which a dispute is not settled within one year of the date upon which such negotiations were requested, it may be submitted for arbitration by either Party. If the disputing parties do not agree on the subject matter of the dispute, the arbitration tribunal shall determine the subject matter according to its rules.

Financing of cooperation structures

The 1983 Agreement stipulates that each government shall bear the cost of its representatives and the cost of any person it wishes to appoint as advisors. No specific
provisions are mentioned in the Interim IncoMaputo Agreement of 2002 on funding.

Stakeholder Participation

No specific provisions.

Historical Record of Cooperation

In 1999, the TPTC decided to include the Maputo River system and to conduct a Joint Maputo Basin Study, which was completed in 2001. This decision broadened the
agenda, which so far had mainly focused on the Incomati River. After more than three years of negotiations, the ministers of the riparian states signed the Interim IncoMaputo
Agreement in 2002. Its major achievement was that the riparian states agreed on previously disputed hydrological data, a number of water management/environmental
measures and a water sharing formula including secure water supply to Maputo city.

Date Treaty name Signatories Basin
Tripartite Technical Committee
South Africa
Water Ministers Meeting
South Africa
Incomati, Komati
Joint Water Commission Treaty
South Africa
Komati, Maputo
Utilizaton of Komati Water Resources Agreement
South Africa
Komati, Kangwane
IncoMaputo Agreement
South Africa
Incomati, Maputo

Underdeveloped Mozambique not party to KOBWA, the river basin organization mandated to operate the dams, insufficient flow for environmental requirements, member states at different stages of development and insufficient funding.